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Lowther Hall Nora Collisson Centre (Library): Writing a Bibliography / Reference List

Why have a Reference System

Information is given in a certain orderso the same information can be found again. 

Look at the books on the library shelves in the image below. There are lots of books. If they were not in a particular order it would be a nightmare to find the one you want!

 

              

How to create a bibliography or reference list

Three steps to ordering your information correctly:

1. Identify the type of source: book; article; website,;image; lyrics . . . 

2. Identify the elements of the source: look for author; title; date of publication; place of publication; page reference; volume . . . 

3. Put the elements for each entry into the correct order according to Harvard referencing style for that particular type of source - see below 

4. Put the entries into alphabetical order according to the author's surname

 

Examples:

1. Type of Source: Book 

2, Order the elements as below.

 

1. Type of Source: Article

2, Order the elements as below.

3. Order the elements into alphabetical order according to the author's surname

 

Referencing Someone Else's Work

It does not matter whether you are referencing someone else's words, images, sounds or ideas, there are two ways to do this:

1. In-text citation:

It is located within your work. Author's last name and the year of publication (and page numbers if it is directly quoted) in round brackets placed within the text. If there is no clear author, the title and date are used. If the work has four or more authors/editors the abbreviation 'et al' should be used after the first author's name.  By using “et al.”, writers can also avoid having very long citations that list every single author. 

2. Reference list:

The reference list should be ordered alphabetically by the last name of the first author of each work. References with no author are ordered alphabetically by the first significant word of the title. It is located at the end of your work.

Use only the initials of the authors' given names. No full stop and space between the initials. Last name comes first.

Here is an example that cites a book with one author using Harvard style.

 

  In-text citation Reference list
1 author (Alexander 2004) OR Alexander (2004) stated that . . .  Alexander, S 2004, The Cook's Companion Lantern, China
2 authors (Cornelius and Kirby, 2021) . . .  Cornelius, J and Kirby, C 2021
3 authors (Cornelius, Healy and Kirby, 2021) Cornelius, J,, Healy, T., and Kirby, C 2021 . . .
4+ authors (Cornelius et al 2020) Cornelius, J., Healy., T., King, F., and Kirby, C., 2020 . . . 

An in-text citation is how you acknowledge resources within your work.

Example of an in-text citation for a quote:

"More than half of all food poisoning happens at home." (Alexander 2004, p.51).

Example of an in-text citation for an idea (when you are paraphrasing someone else's words):

Alexander (2004, p.51) states that the majority of food poisoning happens at home.

Please note: Your teacher will specify if you need to provide in-text citations, as well as a bibliography. At Lowther Hall, you will always need to provide a bibliography or reference list of where you have found your information. You may not, however, be required to provide in-text citations. Be sure to check with your teacher!

Referencing Different Types of Sources

Author (surname then initials) Date, Title (note it is in italics, Publisher, Place of publication

Example

Montgomery, L M 2008, Anne of Green Gables, Penguin Random House, Australia

Author, Year, ‘Title of article’(in ‘  ‘ ) Name of Magazine/ Journal (in italics), Publisher, Month of publication, Page number

Example

Engler, M 2012, ‘Obama: A better adversary’, New Internationalist, New Internationalist Publications, September p33

Author surname(s), initial(s), Date,  Title of page  [Online]. Title of site. Available at: URL (Accessed: day month year)

Example

Beard, M 2006, The fall of the Roman Republic, <http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/ancient/romans/

fallofromanrepublic_article_01.shtml>, Accessed 30 January 2011,

Author Surname, Initial(s) Year, 'Article title', Journal Title, volume, issue or number, page range.
Author Surname, Initial(s) Year, 'Article title', Journal Title, volume, issue or number, page range (if available), accessed Day Month Year, <URL>.
 
Examples
 
Print
Martineau, A and Forouhi N G, 2020,  'Vitamin D for COVID-19: a case to answer?', The Lancet Diabetes & Endocrinology, Vol 8, Issue 9,
pp 735-736.
 
 
Online
Martineau, A and Forouhi N G, 2020,  'Vitamin D for COVID-19: a case to answer?', The Lancet Diabetes & Endocrinology, Vol 8, Issue 9,
pp 735-736, https://doi.org/10.1016/S2213-8587(20)30268-0, accessed 26 November 2020
 
Prefer to learn by watching? Video tutorialHow to write a reference for a journal
Duration: 4:18

Author (surname, Initial(s) Year, 'Article title', Newspaper Title, Day, Month, page range.

Author (surname, Initial(s) Year, 'Article title', Newspaper Title, Day, Month, page range, accessed Day Month Year, <URL>.

Examples

Print

Browne, R 2010, 'This brainless patient is no dummy', Sydney Morning Herald, 21 March, p. 45.

Online

Puvanenthiran, B 2016, 'Holographic creation company gets boost from Alibaba's investment arm', Sydney Morning Herald,  28 September, accessed 08 January 2017, <http://www.smh.com.au/small-business/startup/holographic-creation-company-gets-boost-from-alibabas-investment-arm-20160927-grphjz.html>.

Title of film, Year of production, format e.g. DVD, video recording or motion picture, Publisher (or Distributor), Place, add other useful information such as directed by, starring ...

Example

The man from Snowy River, 2004, DVD, Snowy River Productions, Sydney, directed by George Miller.

Author/producer/Director Surname, Initial(s) Year, Title, type of medium, Publisher, Place of publication

Example

Taylor, B 2009, The four P’s marketing strategies, DVD, Video Education Australiasia, Bendigo, Victoria

Personal Communications include private letters, memos, emails from unarchived sources, personal interviews, telephone conversations, and similar resources. As these sources do not provide recoverable data, Personal Communications do not need to be included in the Reference List but are given as in-text citations.

Author (communicator), Year.,Format description, Day.Month,.

Example

The role of school leaders was confirmed in an interview (E Rhodes  202020, personal communication, 07 July).

OR

 During an interview conducted on 07 July 2020, the principal of Lowther Hall, Ms Rhodes, stated that …

What is a Reference List or Bibliography?

There are two main ways to list your sources, with a reference list or a bibliography.

Reference lists include sources that have been directly cited in your paper. 

Bibliographies, on the other hand, contain all the sources that you have used for your paper, whether they are directly cited or not.

 

Please note: Your teacher will specify if you need to provide in-text citations, as well as a bibliography. At Lowther Hall, you will always need to provide a bibliography or reference list of where you have found your information. You may not, however, be required to provide in-text citations. Be sure to check with your teacher!

A basic guide to citing different types of sources

It is important to know the type of source you are citing, as the order of the elements is slightly different for different source types.

Here is a quick guide for the most common types of sources:

 

For other types of sources, use the site below and access the detailed information you need for each type of source.

Citing different sources by University of NSW

Rules and Features: The basics of Harvard referencing style

When referencing, the order of each element is important and so is the punctuation.

Commas are used between the elements of information.

Author's surname first followed by their initials with no full stops in-between.

If there are two or more authors, separate each name with a comma and put an ampersand "&" before the surname of the last author.

Year of publication is not in brackets.

Major resource titles (such as books, websites, encyclopaedia titles) are written in italics.

Articles are written within quotation marks. For example, 'Queensland border to reopen to Victorians as state records no new cases of COVID again' was an article that appeared in The Age on 25.11.2020

When citing digital resources you must state “accessed” or "viewed" and the date you did so at the end of the entry  starting with the year, month then day in a bracket (Accessed: day month year). For example, Mitchell, J.A and Thomson, M. (2017). How and when to reference [Online]. Available at: https://www.howandwhentoreference.com/APAcitation (Accessed: 21 August 2017).

If there is no publication date of a web page or document cite it using n.d. (no date). In-Text Citation: (Author n.d.)

Interactive Referencing Tools

Use the interactive tools below, created by university libraries, to look at examples of referencing for a range of types of sources. Select from within the sites to get to the detailed information you need. These are especially good to use if you want in-text as well as reference list information.

Re:Cite by University of Melbourne

Referencing Tool by Griffith University

References/Bibliography Harvard style by University of Queensland

 

In the NCC

    Visit the library if you need assistance with your citations.

You could also take a look at some books we have available: