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Lowther Hall Nora Collisson Centre (Library): A FACT: Step 4: Create



How can I organise my information to share with others? Who is my audience? What presentation format will best suit my audience?

Sometimes your teacher will tell you what to CREATE, and sometimes you will need to choose what form is best for your audience to understand what you have learnt. Plan the points you want to make, and set them out clearly and logically. 

This is the stage when you use the evidence you have gathered to form your finished product. In this stage, you ensure that your presentation communicates your ideas effectively to your audience and that you have met the specific requirements of the task.. You will act upon teacher/ peer feedback to modify and improve your final product.

Skills include:

in-text citations; 

adhering to bibliographical / reference list conventions;

and following the layout conventions of the presentation format you are creating


Presenting your findings


The creation of your presentation will depend on you are required to do. The various presentation formats depend on the subject (eg. a Scientific Report or or an Historical Essay) and the specific criteria of the task. You must ensure that you understand the requirements of the task before you embark on creating your product so that you choose an appropriate format.

If the task does not state a particular format, then you must choose the format that best conveys your ideas. 

It is very common to write an essay or a report. They are very different in their structure and purpose.

Image Source: Accessed 01.12.2020

Presentation Format Guides

A poster is a means of communicating research results in a concise way. A good poster presents reduced information while getting to the point of what the audience should remember. 

A poster is made up of the following key features:

1. title and sub-titles / sub-headings

2. graphics

3. text

4. space

You  must also consider: flow; layout; colour; and the order you present your information.

Craft of Scientific Posters - this is an excellent site showing you design, examples and even templates you can use for your scientific posters.

Before you begin to write remember to cover the 5 W's of news gathering:

  • What's happening?
  • Who is involved?
  • Where is this happening?
  • When is it happening?
  • Why is it happening?

When writing your script remember there are three parts to a news script

  1.  The start of your report opens with the main point of the news story. Be sure to give the central message of your report up the front. 
  2.  The middle of your report contains the best of your interviews and information. Review all your material and pick the best information.
  3.  Remember that the end of your report is what you will leave your audience with, so think about the final though you want them to take away. 

And use the 3 Cs of news writing:

  • Clear -  Write as if you are telling the information to one person
  • Concise - Stick to the facts.
  • Correct - check your facts, grammar and punctuation



Duration: 2:48 min

Duration: 9:45 min

If you are confident with the content of your news script and want to improve the language of it, watch this video for five tips as to how to do it.



Duration: 4:57 min

Inverted Pyramid Writing                                                                               Example of using Inverted Pyramid Writing



Essays require you to respond to a research question by developing an argument which is supported by evidence from your research.

There are many different types of essay, depending on the task.

Image Source: Accessed: 01.12.20202


Your teacher will help you to be clear on the required elements needed for a particular essay. 


Reports are a very common way to present your findings. They are clearly structured and present information as succinctly as possible. They use research to make recommendations. 

There are many different types of reports including business reports, scientific lab reports and case study reports.  The common feature of all reports is that they are structured into sections with headings.

Follow these links for detailed information about report structure.

Mini essay. Evaluate / Discuss / 

A Scientific Poster aims to summarise information concisely and attractively with a clear layout, minimal text and images.

What makes a good Scientific Poster?

For a great Oral Presentation you must:

  • consider your audience
  • research your topic
  • structure your presentation so it is easy to follow 
  • have a well executed delivery For example, eye contact is important. 

Follow these link for more detailed information about how to plan and deliver a great Oral Presentation.

Duration: 3:57

Watch this video of Natalie Gasz winning presentation- 3 Minute Thesis at Deakin University.


Digital Presentations can include slides, videos and graphics. Which technologies you use are up to you and your teacher, but no matter the platform, for a great presentation you must focus on:

  • layout
  • content
  • animation and graphics
  • spelling

For more detailed advice on each of the above watch the video below.

Click on the links below to for programs for digital presentations that include videos.

Animoto is a free tool for students and teachers. Easily create and share videos with your class, with parents, and beyond.

Watch this video for an introduction to Animoto

Quick Links

Further Links

Quoting, Paraphrasing and Summarising

There are three ways of incorporating other writers' work into your own writing. They differ according to the closeness of your writing to the source writing.

Quotations must be identical to the original source. They must match the source document word for word and you must be acknowledge the original author. In your own writing, be mindful of the size of the quotation. Be sure to home in on only what you need.

Paraphrasing involves putting a passage from source material into your own words. A paraphrase must also be acknowledged to the original source. Paraphrased material is usually shorter than the original passage.

Summarising involves putting the main idea(s) into your own words. Only the main point(s). Once again, it is necessary to attribute summarised ideas to the original source. Summaries are significantly shorter than the original and are a broad overview of the source material.